which statement is true regarding the models of abnormality?
Describe the structure of the neuron and all key parts. 159. a. depression b. Huntingtons disease c. social anxiety disorder d. schizophrenia. How do socioeconomic, gender, environmental, and multicultural factors affect mental illness and its treatment? a. family-social b. multicultural c. psychodynamic d. humanistic-existential, 135. Often, proponents of a given model find themselves in disagreement with proponents of other models. 3. a. focused primarily on unconscious thoughts, instincts, and conflict. Common antipsychotics include Chlorpromazine, Perphenazine, Quetiapine, and Lurasidone. Whenever she has to attend a party, she only speaks to people she knows well. a. The perspective is overly precise. Mental illness itself occurs from the interaction of multiple genes and other factorssuch as stress, abuse, or a traumatic eventwhich can influence, or trigger, an illness in a person who has an inherited susceptibility to it (https://www.webmd.com/mental-health/mental-health-causes-mental-illness#1). Again, your schema about front row and back row students is incorrect and causes you to make certain assumptions about these individuals. Genes, Hormonal Imbalances, and Viral Infections. Fortunately, the work of George Miller, Albert Ellis, Aaron Beck, and Ulrich Neisser demonstrated the importance of cognitive abilities in understanding thoughts, behaviors, and emotions, and in the case of psychopathology, show that people can create their problems by how they come to interpret events experienced in the world around them. a. 120. a. having the patient engage in activities that elicit anxiety b. prescribing an antidepressant medication such as paroxetine c. teaching the patient how to effectively challenge negative thoughts d. encouraging the patient to cultivate relationships with others who have similar anxieties. 160. I bet the bad behavior ended too. In Module 3, we will discuss diagnosing and classifying abnormal behavior from the perspective of the DSM-5-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition, Text-Revision). Still, we violate these values at times and experience feelings of guilt. Why is this important to a discussion of psychopathology? Freud used three primary assessment techniquesfree association, transference, and dream analysisas part ofpsychoanalysis, or psychoanalytic therapy, to understand the personalities of his patients and expose repressed material. d. frustrating the client. Brooklyn learns to turn on the TV by watching her older brother turn it on. b. anxiety disorders. 58. Panel A of Figure 2.6 shows the naturally occurring response to the stimulus of a loud sound. d. conditions of worth. c. prejudice and discrimination faced by women. Dogs do not enter the world knowing to respond to the ringing of a bell (which it hears). b. denial. c. psychodynamic-gestalt. a. cognitive therapy b. biological therapy c. psychodynamic therapy d. behavior therapy. Reinforcement can either occur continuously meaning every time the desired behavior is made the subject will receive some reinforcer, or intermittently/partially meaning reinforcement does not occur with every behavior. Which is a goal of acceptance and commitment therapy? Clarify how gender factors affect mental illness. 84. b. B) chemical imbalances and brain damage. Watson believed that the subject matter of psychology was to be observable behavior, and to that end, psychology should focus on the prediction and control of behavior. The person may think the schedule has simply changed. As noted earlier, the idea of people being machines, called mechanism, was a key feature of behaviorism and other schools of thought in psychology until about the 1960s or 1970s. During a therapy session, a client is told to pretend the therapist is her parent and to tell her "parent" why she is angry. So, if there are 10 objects/situations in the list, the client will experience ten such pairings and eventually be able to face each without fear. b. focused on a positive message and living a meaningful life. David Rosenhan sent pseudopatients to a mental hospital, where they pretended to be disturbed. c. take responsibility for harmful behavioral patterns. How does the humanistic perspective approach psychopathology? b. operate in accordance with the reality principle. What form of psychotherapy is ChaeWoo receiving? A person with a controlling mother is getting help. What is an important characteristic of group therapy? None of the models are complete within themselves. c. operant conditioning. c. humanistic-existential Though not neurons, glial cells play an important part in helping the nervous system to be the efficient machine that it is. b. cognitive-behavioral. The central nervous system (CNS) is the control center for the nervous system, which receives, processes, interprets, and stores incoming sensory information. The persons true intentions or thoughts and feelings are not readily available to us, or are covert, and do not make for useful empirical data. Describe the role of bacterial and viral infections in mental illness. The motivation to form relationships with others is a central theme of: a. ego theory. How so? A patient sees a therapist to help her address her eating disorder. Which model of abnormality does this quote MOST closely represent? b. sociocultural This is called observational learning and is contrasted with enactive learning, which is learning by doing. It regulates the bodys rate of metabolism and so how energetic people are. Would you want notes from the student in the front or back of the class? First, you can use cognitive restructuring, also called rational restructuring, in which maladaptive cognitions are replaced with more adaptive ones. d. hormone therapy. The earlier that treatment begins, the more effective it can be., https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/men-and-mental-health/index.shtml, In relation to women: Some disorders are more common in women such as depression and anxiety. Outside of phobias, desensitization has been shown to be effective in the treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder symptoms (Hakimian and Souza, 2016) and limitedly with the treatment of depression when co-morbid with OCD (Masoumeh and Lancy, 2016). The answer is yes and no, depending on whether we are talking about continuous or partial reinforcement. A general term used for Freud's, Adler's, and Jung's theories is: The _____ operates in accord with the pleasure principle. In this family, the children are also discouraged from asking for advice or seeking support. The greatest strength or appeal of the behavioral model is that its tenets are easily tested in the laboratory, unlike those of the psychodynamic model. a. Perls. Or, they are easily distracted and sits in the back so that all stimuli are in front of him/her. The nervous system moves quickly with nerve impulses moving in a few hundredths of a second. Here are the models we will examine in this module: You should have learned the following in this section: Proponents of the biological model view mental illness as being a result of a malfunction in the body to include issues with brain anatomy or chemistry. Second, the viewpoint that all human behavior is explainable in biological terms, and therefore when issues arise, they can be treated using biological methods, overlooks factors that are not fundamentally biological. b. humanistic. Which model of abnormality cites physical processes as being the key to behavior? 35. Of course, removing cognition from the study of psychology ignored an important part of what makes us human and separates us from the rest of the animal kingdom. This situation places considerable stress on an individual and can lead to higher rates of anxiety disorders and depression. The fundamental attribution error occurs when we automatically assume a dispositional reason for another persons actions and ignore situational factors. 18.104.22.168. The important thing to understand is that not all behaviors occur due to reinforcement and punishment as operant conditioning says. Figure 2.2. If I do X, then Y will happen. The behavioral model concerns the cognitive process of learning, which is any relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience and practice. b. operant conditioning. For communication, decide if the problem is related to speaking, listening, or both and then develop a plan for use in various interpersonal situations. c. gestalt c. Each paradigm is complete in itself. 22.214.171.124. Second, transference is the process through which patients transfer attitudes he/she held during childhood to the therapist. 146. Schemas and cognitive errors. c. intellectualization. 93. However, critics cite obvious ethical issues with conducting such surgeries as well as scientific issues. It begins with the individual learning a relaxation technique such as diaphragmatic breathing. Which is an example of a biological treatment for this condition? c. transference. a. disengaged b. neglectful c. enmeshed d. belittling. The drug addresses (corrects) the underlying biological reasons for alcohol abuse. A biological theorist studies a psychological disorder through the interconnectivity of an entire network of brain structures. c. gestalt. Explain the need for a multi-dimensional model of abnormality. Influential on the development of Skinners operant conditioning, Thorndike (1905) proposed the law of effect or the idea that if our behavior produces a favorable consequence, in the future when the same stimulus is present, we will be more likely to make the response again, expecting the same favorable consequence. b. negative transference. We must try to convert what we see into action. 14. c. social networks. d. understand how beliefs and values are related to behaviors. Discuss the concept of a model and identify those important to understanding psychopathology. a. very small; selectively b. large; selectively c. large; openly d. small; openly, 142. a. short-term psychodynamic therapy b. psychoanalysis c. traditional psychodynamic therapy d. relational psychoanalytic therapy. MOST likely, this therapist is a _____ therapist. By seeing the model interact nicely with the fear evoking stimulus, their fear should subside. In terms of what is being reinforced, we will either reinforce responses or time. size the different models of abnormality and to avoid oversimplifying the complex nature of human problems. The model of abnormality that examines the effects of society and culture is the _____ model. The biological treatment known as psychosurgery would MOST likely be used in the treatment of a patient with: a. a severe disorder that is also associated with a high risk of suicide. The medical model definition is the concept of how mental and emotional issues are related to biological causes and problems. a. Fritz Perls b. Joseph Wolpe c. Abraham Maslow d. Aaron Beck, 123. How is the anatomy of the brain important to a discussion of psychopathology? Depression occurs with greater frequency in women than men. A psychologist from which background would agree MOST strongly with this statement? b. develop depression even when not under stress. We then discussed biological, psychological, and sociocultural models of abnormality. Notice that preconditioning has both an A and a B panel. Rates of eating disorders are higher among women than men, though both genders are affected. The part of the personality that guides us to know when we can and cannot express our impulses is the: a. id. This scenario demonstrates trial and error learning or making a response repeatedly if it leads to success. d. genes. Admittedly, single factors do emerge during a persons life, but as they arise, the factors become part of the individual. 66. a. 56. Skinner talked about contingencies or when one thing occurs due to another. d. classical conditioning. d. flight of ideas. The force that is in control in this example is the: a. id. This was a positive punisher that did not have to be learned, and definitely not one of my finer moments in life. If we are not motivated to perform an observed behavior, we probably will not show what we have learned. c. They are only a problem when they reach consciousness. The endocrine system moves slowly with hormones, released by endocrine glands, taking seconds, or even minutes, to reach their target. The so-called new wave of cognitive therapy differs from traditional cognitive therapy in that it emphasizes: a. challenging irrational cognitions. 18. A therapist who would say this as a primary part of the therapy process would MOST probably be following the _____ tradition. Which statement regarding the outcomes of couple therapy is FALSE? a. existential therapy b. free association c. mindfulness meditation d. gestalt therapy, 98. She felt confined and suffocated in this life and took to a fantasy world she called her private theater. Anna also developed hysteria, including symptoms such as memory loss, paralysis, disturbed eye movements, reduced speech, nausea, and mental deterioration. In a general sense, a model is defined as a representation or imitation of an object (dictionary.com). The answer is yes, and one of two outcomes is possible. Both groups were frustrated when deprived of the coveted toy. There will be some variability in terms of what symptoms are displayed, but in general, all people with a specific psychopathology have symptoms from that group. Evidence of the effectiveness of psychodynamic therapy comes from: a. natural observation. Bertha, known in published case studies as Anna O., was expected to complete the formal education typical of upper-middle-class girls, which included foreign language, religion, horseback riding, needlepoint, and piano. Over time I learned that attention was good. It provides the strength to fight back or to flee (fight-or-flight instinct). Racial and ethnic minorities must contend with prejudice, discrimination, racism, economic hardships, etc. Describe how the sociocultural model explains mental illness. See Figure 2.1 below. a. tertiary b. mutual-help c. cognitive-behavioral d. integrative behavioral. The humanistic perspective focuses on positive regard, conditions of worth, and the fully functioning person while the existential perspective stresses the need for people to re-create themselves continually and be self-aware, acknowledges that anxiety is a normal part of life, focuses on free will and self-determination, emphasizes that each person has a unique identity known only through relationships and the search for meaning, and finally, that we develop to our maximum potential. Think of it as an If-Then statement. The model of abnormality that examines the effects of society and culture is the _____ model. 46. There is no need to learn it again, as in the case of primary reinforcers and punishers in operant conditioning. Resistance and transference are terms most likely used by which model? The sociocultural model of abnormality focuses on all of these factors EXCEPT: Greshka spilled iced coffee on her shirt while sitting in the park. Of course, most people do not experience this but instead are made to feel that they can only be loved and respected if they meet certain standards, called conditions of worth. d. Each model views childhood trauma as a factor contributing to abnormal behavior. According to the Genetics Home Reference website as part of NIHs National Library of Medicine, a gene is the basic physical and functional unit of heredity (https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/primer/basics/gene). b. exposure therapy. 80. a. low activity of GABA b. absence of dopamine c. low activity of serotonin d. excessive activity of norepinephrine. How so? Some biological treatments produce significant undesirable effects. His name is c. replace problematic behaviors with more appropriate ones. c. who believe in a higher being are the healthiest. Thorndike also said that stimulus and responses were connected by the organism, and this led to learning. The Structure of the Nervous System. a. catharsis. List and describe the models of abnormality. _____ theory focuses on observable and conscious behaviors, whereas _____ theory focuses on unconscious processes. If we are angry at someone, we may engage in physical or relational aggression to alleviate this stimulation. The Humanistic and Existential Perspectives. Existential therapy is used to treat substance abuse, excessive anxiety, apathy, alienation, nihilism, avoidance, shame, addiction, despair, depression, guilt, anger, rage, resentment, embitterment, purposelessness, psychosis, and violence. 2. 126.96.36.199. You have likely heard about Pavlov and his dogs, but what you may not know is that this was a discovery made accidentally. d. They are the brains attempts to understand abnormal electrical activity. A self-help group differs from group therapy in that the self-help group: a. focuses on less serious problems. Masons parents always pay special attention to him when he takes toys from his little sister. Our life instincts, or Eros, are manifested through it and are the creative forces that sustain life. Cognitive-behavioral approaches used to treat social anxiety disorder aim to: a. increase positive self-talk and decrease risk taking. This response does not need to be learned and shows the relationship between an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) yielding an unconditioned response (UCR). a. modeling A boy believes that he is deserving of love only when he earns good grades. 49. The biological treatment known as psychosurgery would MOST likely be used in the treatment of a patient with: a severe disorder and who has not responded to any other therapies over years of treatment. d. fear. c. children who very seldom fight. Operant conditioning is a type of associate learning which focuses on consequences that follow a response or behavior that we make (anything we do or say) and whether it makes a behavior more or less likely to occur. The _____ model of abnormality pays particular attention to the clients family structure, societal norms, and the clients roles in society. The defense mechanism that BEST explains his behavior is: The antenna-like extensions located at one end of the neuron are called: A therapist identifies a biological factor in a patient with depression. Dichotomous thinking Viewing people or events in all-or-nothing terms. It was fun for me to swim in a lake near my house as a child. Marie comes from a supportive, loving family and has a stable socioeconomic background. Check out the following from Harvard Health for more on depression and the brain as a cause: Other Books in the Discovering Psychology Series, Module 3: Clinical Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment, Module 5: Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders, Module 8: Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders, Module 9: Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders, Module 11: Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders, Module 12: Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders, Module 15: Contemporary Issues in Psychopathology, Instructor Resources Instructions - READ FIRST, 2.1. a. cognitive-behavioral c. phallic stage. The neural impulse proceeds across the following steps: Lets look at the electrical portion of the process in another way and add some detail. When we try to establish how abnormality develops, we need to consider how individuals deal with the meaning of life and with the value they find in living. The child learns to interact with others without yelling. d. neurotransmitter imbalances. 68. She ultimately decided not to copy, knowing that doing so was wrong. Can our schemas lead us astray or be false? Gambling disorder is a manifestation of the previously desirable behavior of being a risk taker. The type of reinforcer or punisher we use is crucial. b. axons. a. an actual symptom b. the community mental health system c. labeling d. communication. With time, Anna O. did recover from her hysteria and went on to become a prominent member of the Jewish Community, involving herself in social work, volunteering at soup kitchens, and becoming House Mother at an orphanage for Jewish girls in 1895. Boys are more likely to be diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. b. c. insert RNA into genes. This form of learning is called: a. shaping. This thought is an example of: Which statement is NOT an appropriate criticism of the sociocultural model? According to Freuds psychodynamic theory, the part of the personality that operates by the morality principle is the: a. id. In this case, extinction continues. d. use conscious thought as a means to decrease physiological signs of anxiety. This newer type of cognitive-behavioral therapy emphasizes recognizing problematic thoughts as thoughts rather than judging them, acting on them, or fruitlessly trying to change them. None of the models are complete within themselves. Social desirability states that sometimes participants do not tell us the truth about what they are thinking, feeling, or doing (or have done) because they do not want us to think less of them or to judge them harshly if they are outside the social norm. Inability to disconfirm Ignoring any evidence that may contradict your maladaptive cognition. c. The underlying assumptions of each model are the same. There is no individual model that completely explains human behavior and so each model contributes in its own way. You are doing your best. These are the same four discussed under respondent conditioning. The cognitive model made up for an apparent deficit in the behavioral model overlooking the role cognitive processes play in our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. d. modifying the clients negative behavior and dysfunctional ways of thinking. d. cognitive-behavioral. The force that is in control in this example is the: Which model is MOST likely to suggest using free association to uncover unconscious processes? The procedure in Panel C continued with the rabbit being brought a bit closer each time until, eventually, the child did not respond with distress to the rabbit (Panel D). b. exposure For instance, Parkinsons disease is a brain disorder that results in a gradual loss of muscle control and arises when cells in the substantia nigra, a long nucleus considered to be part of the basal ganglia, stop making dopamine. 149. A person has a recurring dream of losing her dog. According to Freud's psychodynamic theory, the part of the personality that operates by the morality principle is the: Which statement is TRUE regarding electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)? Gender plays an important, though at times, unclear role in mental illness. A therapist listens carefully to a client's words and then attempts to show accurate empathy and genuineness. c. Two-thirds of treated couples achieve marital satisfaction by the end of therapy. 132. What is important to mental health professionals is some disorders involve specific areas of the brain. d. short-term psychodynamic therapy. Armed with this stunning revelation, Pavlov spent the rest of his career investigating the learning phenomenon. c. psychodynamic. 67. After several conditioning trials, the child responded with fear to the mere presence of the white rat (Panel C). a. The fundamental unit of the nervous system is the neuron, or nerve cell (See Figure 2.3). The strategies arise from all three learning models. c. poverty is a stressor that contributes to dysfunction. b. rationalization. She could see the answers of the person next to her and briefly considered copying his answers. In the business setting, a model or trainer demonstrates how to use a computer program or run a register for a new employee. A theorist who believes that the multicultural perspective is the correct way to think about abnormality comes from which paradigm? Add them up and see if making some minor, or major, adjustments to your schedule will free an hour to get in some valuable exercise. Briefly outline how communication in the nervous system occurs. 145. This represents the individual pairings of a feared object or situation and relaxation. b. insight. d. only one factorstress or predispositionis necessary for abnormality to occur. The second part of personality emerges after birth with early formative experiences and is called the ego. This statement aligns MOST closely with the beliefs of which type of theorist? b. social factors leading to stress. Todays techniques are much more sophisticated and have been used to treat schizophrenia, depression, and some personality and anxiety disorders. The processes described in this model occur at an unconscious level. Step 1 Neurons waiting to fire are said to be in, Step 2 If adequately stimulated, the neuron experiences an, Step 3 Once the action potential passes from one segment of the axon to the next, the previous segment begins to, Step 4 After the neuron fires, it will not fire again no matter how much stimulation it receives. This should sound much like what you just read about in terms of Thorndikes work. 34. 188.8.131.52. b. behavioral-focused Source: https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/index.shtml. Which type of psychodynamic therapy encourages therapists to disclose things about themselves? c. overgeneralization. The genes responsible for anxiety disorders or related psychological patterns are the same genes that once helped our ancestors survive and reproduce. The results of this study led him to conclude that _____ greatly affects mental illness. d. damage control. The objective of the Human Genome Project was to: a. clone a mammal. Finally, the individual either imagines (systematic) or experiences in real life (in-vivo) each object or scenario from the hierarchy and uses the relaxation technique while doing so. b. multicultural. b. neurosis. These included risk versions of two genes that regulate the flow of calcium into cells. Likewise, twin and family studies have shown that people with first-degree relatives suffering from OCD are at higher risk to develop the disorder themselves. Her symptoms appeared as she cared for her dying father, and her mother called on Breuer to diagnosis her condition (note that Freud never actually treated her). She works very hard to do things that other people would like and to make people like her. There are times when we learn by simply watching others. This is an example of: Members of a family operate very independently of one another. MOST likely, this therapist is a _____ therapist. 184.108.40.206. The biopsychosocial model examines the health and other illnesses and product behavior with biological features and behavioral factors.Several health psychologists work with healthcare experts and patients to help . A person engages in multiple online discussions with a large number of friends on Facebook. Clarify what psychodynamic techniques are used. The sympathetic nervous system is involved when a person is intensely aroused. The defense mechanism that BEST explains this behavior is: Nikolai's grandmother has just baked cookies and is placing them on a cooling rack. Why might this treatment be effective in preventing alcohol use even after the client stops taking the drug? 13. In terms of the latter, cognitive behavior modification procedures arose after the 1960s and with the rise of cognitive psychology. A person who is isolated and lacks social support or intimacy is more likely to: Which of the following exemplify secondary prevention? Cultural factors might create a climate favorable for the development of certain disorders. c. psychodynamic. And if a nipple is placed in their mouth, they will also automatically suck via the sucking reflex. c. feminist therapy. When a young child yells and throws toys (i.e., throws a temper tantrum), the parents give the child a good deal of attention. b. the pleasure principle. The superego is partly conscious but mostly unconscious, and part of it becomes our conscience. c. operant conditioning. 143. According to Bandura, all behaviors are learned by observing others, and we model our actions after theirs, so undesirable behaviors can be altered or relearned in the same way. We all have two copies of each gene, one inherited from our mother and one from our father. The final section is a